Arkisto tiedotteille ja lausunnoille 2012
Lausunto kyselyyn juristien ihmisoikeuskoulutuksestaDnro 55/2011
Lausuntopyyntönne, dnro HEL5956-63, 22.12.2011
OHCHR; KYSELY TUOMAREIDEN, SYYTTÄJIEN JA LAKIMIESTEN IHMISOIKEUSKOULUTUKSESTA
Kyselyn kohteena on ”lawyers” ja ”public defenders”. Direktiivien 77/249/ETY ja 98/5/EY perusteella Euroopan unionin sisällä ”lawyer” on yleensä käännettävä asianajajaksi mutta tässä YK:n toimintaan liittyvässä yhteydessä ”lawyerin” on katsottava tarkoittavan oikeudenkäyntiavustajaa tai –asiamiestä riippumatta siitä, kuuluuko oikeudenkäyntiavustaja asianajajakuntaan vai ei. Kansainvälisesti poikkeuksellinen mahdollisuus toimia oikeudenkäyntiavustajana ilman asianajajakuntaan kuulumista johtaa siihen, että useisiin oikeudenkäyntiavustajia koskeviin kysymyksiin on kaksi vastausta riippuen siitä, kuuluko oikeudenkäyntiavustaja asianajajakuntaan vai ei. ”Public defender” voi olla joko julkinen oikeusavustaja tai yksityinen oikeudenkäyntiavustaja, joka puolestaan voi olla asianajaja tai muu lakimies.
Suomen Asianajajaliiton lausunnossa otetaan kantaa kysymyksiin vain siltä osin kuin kysymykset koskevat asianajajia ja julkisia oikeusavustajia. Vastauksissa on niin ikään otettu huomioon vain asianajajat ja julkiset oikeusavustajat, joiden molempien toimintaa Asianajajaliitto sääntelee ja valvoo.
Pidämme tärkeänä, että lopullisen vastauksen kohdassa ”Please include here any additional comments you would like to make on Part I” selostetaan, että Suomessa on mahdollista toimia oikeudenkäyntiavustajana, ”lawyerina” joko asianajajakunnan jäsenenä tai sen ulkopuolella, ja että, onko vastaukset annettu vain asianajajakunnasta (Members of the Bar) saatavien tietojen perusteella vai käsittäen kaikki oikeudenkäyntiavustajat, joita ei asianajajiin noudatettava sääntely koske.
Mikäli vastausluonnostemme perusteella teille syntyy kysymyksiä, annamme mielellämme lisätietoja.
4) What was the total number of judges, prosecutors, lawyers and public defenders in your country in 2010?
Lawyers (members of the Finnish Bar Association) 1.893
Lawyers (associate lawyers employed by Bar members) approx. 600
Lawyers (employed by state public legal aid offices) appox 220 (of those 123 are members of the Bar)
14) Are there one or more associations in the country of any of the following categories of legal profession?
Lawyers: Yes, more associations
(Suomessa on vain yksi kansallinen asianajotoimintaa sääntelevä ja valvova järjestö: Suomen Asianajajaliitto. Mutta koska kysymys ei rajoitu tiedustelemaan järjestöä ”regulating and/or supervising the legal profession in question”, on otettava huomioon myös muut lakimiesjärjestöt, joihin oikeudenkäyntiavustajat kuuluvat.)
24) Are the training and qualifications of the lawyers/advocates (members of the Finnish Bar) regulated by law? Is training in human rights required by legal provisions?
Lawyers; Qualifications are regulated by law. Training is regulated by law. Training in human rights is not required,
Qualifications of the members of the Finnish Bar are regulated by the Act on Advocates Section 3 § (see below).
The continuing education of the lawyers is regulated by the By-Laws (Section 5) of the Finnish Bar Association (confirmed by the Ministry of Justice) and the guidelines concerning the continuing education of lawyers (attached). Training in human rights is not specifically required.
Act on Advocates
A citizen of Finland or another state within the European Economic Area, who has reached the age of 25 years, may be accepted as an advocate, if:
1) he is known to be honest and in respect of his other characteristics and way of life suitable for the profession of advocate;
2) he has passed the academic requirements stipulated in Finland for judicial office, and he has acquired the skills required for practice as an advocate and he has acquired the practical experience stipulated in the by laws of the Bar Association; and
3) he is not a bankrupt and has full legal capacity (1 April 1999/458)
By-Laws of the Finnish Bar Association
Persons satisfying the conditions of eligibility provided for in the Advocates Act and in these by-laws may be admitted as members.
Persons seeking membership must practice or begin to practice advocacy on a professional basis and reside in a state of the European Economic Area. They must have acquired the skills and practical experience necessary for the profession of advocate by practising, after completing legal training, for at least four (4) years in the field of judicial administration or in comparable duties requiring legal education, but in any case for at least two (2) years as an assistant lawyer, public legal counsellor or independent legal practitioner or in other tasks handling a comparable amount of matters of advocacy.
The objects of the Bar Association are:
the maintenance and enhancement of the sense of responsibility and the professional skills of its members as well as the development of advocacy in Finland generally in a manner conducive to the members forming a Bar that serves proper judicial administration and merits trust and respect in general;
44) What are the qualifications required for the career of a lawyer and a public defender?
The qualifications required for a lawyer are:
Written public examination
Completion of the relevant course at the training centre or a similar body
Completion of a technical course after the law decree
No mandatory internship/apprenticeship
The same applies to the public defenders if they are members of the Bar.
45) Is there a training centre or training programme for lawyers
A centre or similar body: A joint body for both professions.
A programme: A joint programme for both professions.
The Bar Exam Committee of the Finnish Bar Association organizes a training programme for such lawyers and public defenders who wish to join the Finnish Bar Association. The programme includes a one day written examination for which applicants should examine written material concerning, for example, code of conduct issues and procedural law. The programme further includes two two-day’s seminars. The other seminar handles code of conduct matters and practical information regarding law firm management. The other seminar handles matters related to appearing at a court. Before the seminar the applicants are required to complete some written exercises.
46) Please specify which institution is responsible for providing training to lawyers
Lawyers: Bar Association
Public Defenders: Bar Association
47) How long does the training last for?
Please see the detailed answer regarding question 45.
48) Besides the initial training course, is continuing education also required throughout the career of a lawyer?
The lawyers shall take part in continuing professional education for a minimum of eighteen (18) hours each year.
49) Is the initial and continuous training for lawyers tailored to their function and specializations?
50) Please provide details in the table below concerning subjects included in the training of lawyers and their mandatory or voluntary nature, and the amount of time dedicated to them.
Overall training programme; lawyers and public defenders; initial training 50 hours; mandatory; continuous training 18 hours per a year; mandatory.
The following number of hours concerns mandatory initial training for both lawyers and public defenders:
Overall human rights component 1 hour
Otherwise the training programme does not include human rights aspects.
Regarding answers to continuous training, please see additional comments below.
51) Is there any mechanism to monitor the effectiveness of training during lawyers’ career?
Please include here any additional comments you would like to make on Part IV
It is impossible to calculate the hours of continuous training that lawyers and public defenders dedicate to human rights as it is not regulated how and in which judicial subject a lawyer must train himself during one year as long as the 18 yours of mandatory continuous training is reached. The Bar organises about 50 training courses per year and some of them have human rights component.
53) Please indicate the main challenges encountered in providing human rights education and training to lawyers
Other: Many lawyers prefer training that is closer to their daily work, human rights training seems to be too abstract to them.
Helsingissä 6. helmikuuta 2012
Suomen Asianajajaliiton puheenjohtaja, asianajaja
LAATI apulaispääsihteeri Pirkko Kivikari, Suomen Asianajajaliitto